Abstract Detail


Folk, Ryan [1], Siniscalchi, Carolina [2], Belitz, Michael [3], Doby, Joshua [4], Manchester, Steven [5], Soltis, Pamela [6], Soltis, Douglas [7], Guralnick, Robert [8].

Spatial phylogenetics of Fagales: Investigating the history of temperate forests.

Mapping the diversity of temperate plants is essential for understanding how plants left their tropical origins and invaded the colder environments of today’s climates. Refugial areas of ancient temperate forests (that is, paleoendemic hotspots) have long been hypothesized and have generally been associated with areas having reduced local climate change resulting in lowered localized extinction. One pathway for distinguishing refugia from other potential processes that led to observed distributions is spatial phylogenetics. Distinguishing areas of significant neo- and paleoendemism using spatial phylogenetic tools would offer insight into areas that harbor ancient diversity (which could indicate areas of reduced extinction), or that disproportionately contain recently evolved narrow endemics (which could be the result of ecological filtering or in situ diversification). Joining diversity estimates with contemporary environmental data and with ecologically significant traits can yield additional power to distinguish ecological filtering from alternative explanations.
Here we investigate spatial phylogenetic diversity patterns in Fagales, an iconic member of global temperate forests, to uncover diversity and endemism patterns and investigate potential processes responsible for the spatial distribution of the clade. We used a recently inferred, deeply sampled phylogenetic tree for Fagales (707 species or 60% of recognized species diversity, based on combined phylogenomic and GenBank data) with species distribution estimates (1,045 species or 90%). We also developed a new species distribution modeling pipeline that is fully automated but uses best practices for modeling including extensive curational steps. Finally, we investigated and mapped the proportion of lineages within Fagales that engage in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, asking whether this ecological strategy may be involved in ecological filtering of phylogenetic diversity.
We had three primary goals for Fagales, implemented in a regression framework: (1) assess areas and environmental conditions associated with high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, (2) distinguish patterns of neoendemism and paleoendemism using CANAPE (Categorical Analysis of Palaeo and Neo Endemism), and (3) identify environments that support a higher diversity of species that engage in nitrogen-fixing symbioses.
As expected, we recovered the highest species richness of extant Fagales in temperate east Asia, with secondary hotspots of species richness in eastern North America, montane Mexico, and Malesia. CANAPE analyses indicate most of these regions are characterized by mixed endemism patterns, only in partial agreement with our predictions, while only southern Mexico and southeast Asia were characterized by significant paleoendemism. Southern Africa and eastern Madagascar formed the only region with significant neoendemism. The distribution of nodulating species of Fagales is also highly heterogeneous and distributed marginally with respect to broader Fagales diversity. A particularly high richness of Fagalean nodulators (but not overall Fagalean species richness) exists in South Africa, the southern Malesian region, and Australia, primarily in arid habitats. Overall, our results point to traditionally recognized paleoendemic areas for north temperate forests (east Asia, eastern North America) but also identify novel hotspots including high montane southern Mexico and Malesia, not traditionally considered centers of ancient diversity for temperate groups.

Related Links:
Folk Lab Website

1 - Mississippi State University, Biological Sciences, 295 E. Lee Blvd., P.O. Box GY, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, United States
2 - Mississippi State University, Biological Sciences, 295 E. Lee Blvd., P.O. Box GY, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA
3 - University of Florida, Biology, 621 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA
4 - University of Florida, Biology, 621 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, US
5 - Florida Museum Of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, Museum Rd & Newell Dr., Gainesville, FL, 32611, United States
6 - University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, 32611.0, United States
7 - University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History,, 3215 Hull Road, P. O. Box 2710, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA
8 - Florida Museum Of Natural History, 358 Dickinson Hall, University O, 358 Dickinson Hall, University Of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, United States

none specified

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Number: BIOG III002
Abstract ID:893
Candidate for Awards:None

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